Common Disorders
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Did you know the foot has 28 bones, 37 joints, 107 ligaments, 19 muscles, and numerous tendons? These parts all work together to allow the foot to move in a variety of ways while balancing your weight and propelling you forward or backward on even or uneven surfaces. It is no wonder that most Americans will experience a foot problem that will require the care of a specialist at one point or another in their lifetime.

As all runners know, running begins with a good foundation. And where do we find that foundation? At the ground level where the rubber meets the road.

In other words, your shoes, the pieces of leather and rubber that separate your feet from the hard concrete of the road.

Let's look at the anatomy of a running shoe, and the four sections of the shoe that make it complete.

The uppers of the shoe may be made of leather or, for the lighter shoes, a synthetic which is lighter, washable and breathable (to reduce heat from the foot). Another component of the upper is the tongue of the shoe, which should be padded in order to cushion the top of the foot against lace pressure. At the back of the shoe, the ankle collar should also be padded to prevent rubbing and irritation of the Achilles tendon.

Once upon a time, carbohydrates were classified as sugars or starches. Today, carbs such as fruits, vegetables and grains are classified by their glycemic effect: that is, their ability to elevate blood sugar. The Glycemic Index (GI) ranks carbs according to their ability to elevate blood glucose. It was originally developed as a tool to help people with diabetes. Today, several popular diet books and magazines have expounded upon the virtues of avoiding carbs such as carrots, potatoes, and white bread because they have a high glycemic effect. Supposedly, they quickly elevate blood sugar, stimulate the body to secrete too much insulin, and this, in turn is said to promote fat storage.


Should I stop eating bagels and pasta? I've heard they are fattening because they quickly digest into sugar, which raises insulin and encourages fat storage. Is that true?